Railroad: Boyne City, Gaylord and Alpena Railroad Company

The Boyne City, Gaylord & Alpena was a successor to the Boyne City & South Eastern railroad. The line was built in 1893 by the White family lumber interests east from Boyne City into the forest and a connection with the Grand Rapids & Indiana at Moore near Boyne Falls. Under BCG&A, it was expanded to Gaylord (i1905), Atlanta (1914) and Gaylord (1918). The line was in and out of receivership throughout it's existence.

As it built east from Atlanta to Alpena, it ran out of money. R.E. Olds, of the automobile giant, provided funding to complete the line.

In 1935, most of the railroad was abandoned from Moore (near Boyne Falls) to Alpena. The line was reorganized in 1935 and became the Boyne City Railroad, and then in 1976 to the Boyne Valley Railroad before abandonment in 1982.

BC&SEBoyne City, Gaylord & Alpena RRBCRR

Built: 1905 from Boyne City (on BC&SE which was built in 1893) eventually to Alpena, plus forest branches.

Became: Boyne City Railroad in 1935, cut back to Boyne City to GR&I near Boyne Falls connection.

Reference: [MRRC]

BCGA Office 2003

The Boyne City, Gaylord & Alpena railroad was built to log northern Michigan's forests. The railroad was owned by the White family, which owned a large saw mill facility on the southeast edge of Lake Charlevoix. (Lake Charlevoix boats had access to Lake Michigan via the Round Lake canal at Charlevoix.)

Photo Info/Credit: The former BCG&A office in 200. [Dale Berry]

The initial Boyne City line was laid in 1893 during the pine era. The railroad eventually reached Gaylord in 1905. According to Sanborn maps, the BCG&A had two wye tracks north and south to the Michigan Central, and they likely used the MC depot which was north of the BCG&A. No BCG&A stations appear on these maps.

In 1914, the railroad was extended across the MC and it headed towards Atlanta and Alpena. The White family had numerous timber holdings in Otsego and Montmorency counties and likely harvested pine as well as hardwoods. The railroad reached Alpena in 1918 and there is some evidence that construction west actually started in Alpena and headed west to meet the construction gangs from the west.

Even though the BCG&A was in and out of bankruptcy, construction techniques were ample and substantial. Much of this main line had major cuts and built-up grades. Some of these grades can still be observed 100 years later. As an example, the raised grade of the main line which is built through Fletcher's Floodwaters in Alpena County still exists under water, and fishermen find success fishing near it.

Concrete bridge peers exist 100 years later at the BCGA's overhead crossing of the GR&I railroad north of Elmira. Though the railroad ran mixed trains with passengers stopping at logging camps and hamlets between Gaylord and Alpena, the only depot built along this stretch was in Atlanta, near what is currently Freddie's IGA market.

In the late 1910's, the railroad was in financial trouble and operated by a court appointed receiver. the railroad had built east to near Dobbins, east of Atlanta, to bring out timber. They had also started building the line west from Alpena, reaching the area south of Hillman. That's when construction stopped for lack of funding. Somehow, they talked Robert E. Olds (of Oldsmotor fame) to fund the completion and bring them out of bankruptcy. It is not known why Olds funded the operation, but the BCG&A closed in less than 10 years.

During US Railroad Administration discussion about railroad consolidation after World War I, there was some talk of combining the BCG&A with the Michigan Central, bringing some significant railroad competition to Alpena. The White's wanted $1.6 million and the MC was willing to take it on for free. An arbitrator set the amount at $200,000 but with business dramatically declining as the forests emptied, and the depression in full swing, this never happened.

There is also evidence in the Michigan State Archives that the BCG&A proposed branch lines north and northeast of the Alpena Portland Cement Plant for the purpose of bringing limestone into the plant. The D&M brought an action before the Public Service Commission to stop the BCG&A's action. However, it appears that the plant went with the Detroit & Mackinac railway instead.

The BCG&A was pulled up in 1935 from Alpena west to Moore (Boyne Falls). This abandonment was started because hardwood logging had dried up and the railroad and mill were struggling. This might also have been hastened by the flooding which created Fletcher's Flood Waters, completely covering up the line for several miles. According to the Detroit Free Press, the Alpena-based electric company had always intended to fill the floodwaters and allowed the railroad to cross knowing they would need to move their line when that happened. By the time of the flooding, BCG&A service had already been cut back and the track was in extremely bad repair. The purpose of flooding the area was to create a reservoir as a back up to the power company in Alpena.

Operated as the Boyne City and later the Boyne Valley Railroad, the road was completely abandoned in 1976 [MRRC].

BCGA Train at Boyne City April, 1905. The BCG&A announced that they are taking over the property of the Boyne City & Southeastern railroad, and plan to extend the line to Alpena, 110 miles. [RG=1905-0421]

November 20, 1920. Olds Backed Boyne Railroad. His $450,000 Saved Boyne City, Alpena and Gaylord (sic) Line. Alpena, MI, The man whose cash was the magic key that released from receivership in 1917 the Boyne City, Gaylord & Alpena railroad, and has made possibble its operation to this day, was Ransom E. Olds, the automobile financier, a jury in Alpena circuit court was told Thursday by George E. Nichols, of Ionia, defending the railroad in a $100,000 contract suit brought by I. S. Canfield, F. H. Orcutt and W. T. Hoey, of Alpena.  

Olds put up $450,000 that the road might be rescued from receivership into which it was plunged in November, 1913, Attorney Nichols told the jury.

All this the defense expects to prove, it said, during its inning in the trial occupying the attention of Judge Emmerick, a jury, and a costly array of legal talent. The trial already has been in progress more than a week, and predictions were it would not end Friday.

The road originally was a spur to a lumber camp. William H. White & Co., of Boyne City, had extensive lumber holdings there, about which this road reached. The brothers were William H., Thomas, James and Robert White. When the road was projected in 1905 a bond issue of $250,000 was negotiated, which was partly sold. Later it was decided to extend it to Gaylord, where upon the Whites advanced the road $160,000 more. The road continued expanding until 1915, when it owed White & Co. $325,000. The story of its extension to Alpena in 1919 was recited in full.

In November, 1913, James A. White made application in the district federal court for a receiver, both for the railroad and William H. White & Co., which was granted, the Michigan Trust company, of Grand Rapids being named, receiver. Up to that time stock had been issued in William H. White & Co. in the sum of $1,200,000 of which $1,150,000 was owned by the White brothers. And $500,000 in stock and bonds had been issued by the railroad, of which the White brothers owned a majority.

In 1915, William H. White came to Alpena, Attorney Nichols related the idea of enlisting the aid of Canfield and Attorney Orcutt, a banker; Hoey, a lumberman, and the raising of $700,000 with which to rescue the two companies from receivership, for which service he was willing to pay $100,000. Then it was that the contract, which is the basis of this suit, was entered into.

From August, 1915, until early in 1917, various attempts were made by the trio, the White brothers, and others to finance the road, it was declared. All sorts of combinations were devised and each time success seemed about to smile on the plan, a frown appeared, usually opposition of the receiver. At least, several distinct attempts were claimed by the defense.

Finally Claude Hamilton was brought into the financial problem, and it was he who went to Ransom E. Olds and borrowed $450,000, as claimed by the defence [sic], of which amount $275,000 was used in putting the road on it feet. The Alpena stockholders, partly through the efforts of Canfield, Orcutt and Hoey were induced to take the paper of the new company, par for par, while William H. White & Co. did likewise, said Nicols. [CCH-11//26/1920]

Photo Info/Credit: A BCG&A passenger train is near Boyne City, headed to Gaylord.

December 29, 1922. Permission to construct a branch line in Michigan from Alpena to Rockport a distane of 13 miles, was sought from the Interstate Commerce Commission today by the Boyne Ciy, Gaylord & Alpena. The new line would give the railroad access to lime quarries and other industries. [PHTH]