Bibliography

The following sources are utilized in this website. ]SOURCE-YEAR-MMDD-PG]:

  • [AAB| = All Aboard!, by Willis Dunbar, Eerdmans Publishing, Grand Rapids ©1969.
  • [AAN] = Alpena Argus newspaper.
  • [AARQJ] = American Association of Railroads Quiz Jr. pamphlet. © 1956
  • [AATHA] = Ann Arbor Railroad Technical and Historical Association newsletter "The Double A"
  • [AB] = Information provided at Michigan History Conference from Andrew Bailey, Port Huron, MI
  • [ACHS] = Information from the Allegan County Historical Society
  • [AGG] = "Aids, Gifts, Grants and Donations to Railroads,..", Michigan Railroad Commission, 1919
  • [AL] = Alan Loftis private collection, Farmington, Michigan.
  • [AML] = The American Lumberman. Chicago, IL Published weekly
  • [AR] = Alma Record, Alma, Michigan.
  • [ARJ-mm/dd/yyyy] = American Railroad Journal.
  • [AS] = Al Smith, historian.
  • [ATDC] = Along the Tracks in Dickenson County.  William J. Cummings.  Secord Press, © 1993.
  • [BBAN] = Belding Banner newspaper, Belding, Michigan.
  • [BBG] = Bloomberg.com
  • [BCE] = Battle Creek Enquirer, Battle Creek Michigan.
  • [BH] = Ben Higdon, Kalamazoo.
  • [BHHP] = Benton Harbor Herald Palladium newspaper
  • [BHN] = Bessemer Herald newspaper, Bessemer, Michigan
  • [BHS] = Baraga Historical Society
  • [BJ] = Bay-Journal.com, Bay County, Michigan. Website.
  • [BOM] = Buildings of Michigan by Kathryn Bishop Eckert.  Published in 1993 by Oxford University Press.
  • [CAL] = caltopo.com mapping including Lidar overlays
  • [CB] = research by historian Carl Bajema, Grand Rapids, Michigan.
  • [CCE] = Copper Country Explorer website
  • [CCH] = Charlevoix County Herald, East Jordan, Michigan.
  • [CCEN] = The Copper Country Evening News, Calumet, Michigan.
  • [CCIH] = Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company, An Historical Review...", 1920
  • [CD] =  The Cheboygan Democrat newspaper, Cheboygan, Michigan.
  • [CERA] = Central Electric Railfan's Association Bulletin 103, unless a different bulletin is noted.
  • [CGJ] = Charles Geletzke Jr. railroad historian and photographer
  • [CMH] = C. Mark Genricks, Member, Muskegon Railroad Historical Society
  • [CM] = Clio Messenger, Clio, Michigan.
  • [CMS-yyyy] = Annual Report of the Commissioner of Mineral Statistics of the State of Michigan.
  • [ CN] = Calumet News, Calumet, Michigan
  • [CNWE] = Chicago & North Western evaluation maps, circa. 1917.
  • [CNWPD1] = C&NW Peninsula Division 1940-1996 Volume 1, by James E. Lewnard, ©2020, Four Ways West Publications, La Mirada, CA
  • [CNWPD2] = C&NW Peninsula Division 1940-1996 Volume 2, by James E. Lewnard, ©2020, Four Ways West Publications, La Mirada, CA
  • [COFTD] = Chesapeake and Ohio Railway Co. Freight Traffic Department Meeting report, White Sul[jir Springs. WV. 1951, unless noted.
  • [COHS-mm/yy] = Chesapeake & Ohio Historical Society and/or COHS Magazine + issue date.
  • [CRAR] = Copper Range Railroad annual reports.  State of Michigan Library.
  • [CRH] = The Copper Range Railroad by Clarence J. Monett, 1989
  • [CRORG] = www.copperrange.org
  • [CRP1] = "The 14th Line Dummy and Milwaukee Junction", by Charles R. Petcher. Michigan Railfan, February, 1981.
  • [CRWS] = Copper Range Web Site
  • [CW] = Charles Whipp, Lapeer, Michigan
  • [DB] = Dale Berry, editor.
  • [DBOC-mmddyy} = Detroit Board of Commerce publication.
  • [DD] = Diamond Drill (newspaper), Crystal Falls, Michigan
  • [DFP] = Detroit Free Press, Detroit, MI
  • [DHS] = Detroit Historical Society
  • [DTIT] = Detroit, Toledo & Ironton employee timetable.+ date.
  • [DK] = David Kindem, Grand Haven, Michigan
  • [DN] = Detroit News, Detroit, MI
  • [DPG] = Dearborn Press and Guide - 9/23/1999
  • [DPH] = Detroit, A Postcard History.  Reference.
  • [DPL] = Detroit Public Library
  • [DRK] = Henry Ford Museum & Greenfield Village Rail Collection, by David R. Kovel, et. al. ©1993.
  • [D18] = Detroit 1860-1899 Images of America.  Reference.
  • [DLC] = Dave LeCount.
  • [DL&N-yyyy] = Detroit, Lansing & Northern Ry. Annual Report to Stockholders.
  • [DMAR-yyyy] = Detroit & Mackinac Ry. Annual Reports, State of Michigan Library files.
  • [DMG] = The Daily Mining Gazette newspaper, Houghton, MI
  • [DMH] = Dan Meinhard, Port Huron, MI.
  • [DSS] = The Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic Ry., Steven Gaertmer. Indiana University Press. ©2009
  • [DSSM] = DSSA condensed profile maps 1907-1938.
  • [DSSS] = "DSS&A Shorts", a publication of the Soo Line Historical and Technical Societ.
  • [DT] = The Daily Telegram (Adrian) Newspaper
  • [ DTSL-yyyy] = Detroit & Toledo Shore Line Annual Report.
  • [DWS] = Detroit in it's World Setting, edited by David L. Poremba, Wayne State University Press, Detroit. © 2001
  • [DWT] = Detroit and World Trade, Detroit Board of Commerce by Thomas Laurencre Munger. October 20, 1920.
  • [EDP-mm/dd/yyyy] = Escanaba Daily Press
  • [EFI] = The Detroit & Toledo Shore Line Railroad Expressway for Industry, by Charles Geletzke Jr. and Wilbur Hague, Kultztown Publishing, © 1912
  • [EHMT] = The Early History of a Mining Town, by Robert D. Dobson, Dobson Publications, Negaunee, MI, © 2005
  • [ELI] = "Edison, His Life and Inventions", by F. L. Dyer and T. C. Martin.
  • [ELSW] = Escanaba & Lake Superior web site history.
  • [EMP] = Escanaba Morning Press, Escanaba, Michigan
  • [EMRn] = When Eastern Michigan Rode the Rails.  n=Book number.  Jack E. Schramm - William H. Henning - Richard R. Andrews. © 1994 Transportation Trails.
  • [ERM] = Electric Railways of Michigan, Central Electric Railfan's Association Bulletin 103, Chicago, IL, © 1959
  • [EXFI] = The Detroit & Toledo Shore Line, Expressway for Industry, by Charles Geletzke Jr., © 2012. Kutztown Publishing, Kutztown, PA.
  • [F& PM-yyyy] = Flint & Pere Marquette Annual Report to Stockholders
  • [FFTF-IR] = Frames For The Future Iron River Area.  Marcia Bernhardt, Editor, Iron County Historical and Museum Society, Iron River, Michigan. © 1980
  • [FLS] = Fires in Lake Superior Iron Mines, by Edwin Higgins. Higgins, Edwin.
  • [FL] = The Fishing Line, by Graydon M. Meints, Michigan State University Press, ©2018
  • [FP] = Frank Passic, Albion area historian.
  • [FPMTT] = Flint & Pere Marquette employee timetable.
  • [JH] = Jim Harlow, former Penn Central/Conrail employee
  • [GB] = Greg Bunce, former E&LS Employee and rail historian
  • [GDJ] = George "Sandy" Duffy, Jr., President PH&S Historical Society.
  • [GG] = Glenn Gould.
  • [GLC] = Information provided by the Great Lakes Central Railroad.
  • [GLF] = Gary L. Franks, PE.  Perrysburg, Ohio bridge historian.
  • [GM] = Graydon M. Meints, historian.
  • [GRDE] = Grand Rapids Daily Eagle newspaper, Grand Rapids, Michigan.
  • [GREP] = Grand Rapids Evening Press.
  • [GSM] = Geological Survey of Michigan, Alfred C. Lane, State Geologist. 1900-1903. Robert Smith Printing. Available on line.
  • [GTCR] = GTC Reporter, Grand Trunk railroad newsletter.
  • [GTD] = Grand Trunk Western Directors Tour map book, c. 1980.
  • [GTM] = "Ghost Towns of Michigan", Wakefield, Larry. Thunder Bay Press.
  • [GTM2] = "Ghost Towns of Michigan, Volume II", Wakefield, Larry. Thunder Bay Press. © 1995
  • [GTWET] = Grand Trunk Western Employee Timetable
  • [GTWHS-mm/yy] = "The Semaphore", Grand Trunk Western Historical Society.
  • [GW] = Wakeman, George L., "My Story of the Detroit & Mackinac Railroad".  Library of Michigan, Lansing, 1940.
  • [HAM] = Historic Arcadia, Michigan website
  • [HB-mm/yyyy] - Hotbox, publication of the North Central Region, National Model Railroad Association
  • [HBO] = HistoricBridges.org
  • [HCKS] = A History of the Chicago, Kalamazoo & Saginaw Railroad, by Florence Sergeant Lang, © 1970. Barry County Historical Society.
  • [HCN] = A History of the Cincinnati Northern Railroad, Jim Brown, Little Falls Press, Cataract, Wisconsin. © 2003.
  • [HCSC] = Houghton County's Streetcars and Electric Park, Clarence J. Monette, Greenlee Printing Company, © 2001.
  • [HGD] = The Historical Geography of Detroit, by Almon Ernest Parkins. PhD. University of Chicago Libraries. 1918.
  • [HGJ] = A Historical Geography of Jackson, Michigan: A Study on the Changing Character of An American City 1829-1969, Richard A. Santer.  1972.
  • [HH/MIHX8] = Hugh Hornstein, 8th Michigan Railroad History Conference, St. Ignace, MI.
  • [HMRB] = History of the Maumee River Basin by Charles Slocum.  Published in 1905.
  • [HNM] = The History of Northern Michigan, Perry F. Powers, Lewis Publishing Company, 1912.
  • [HI] = High Iron Along the Huron Shore.
  • [HIM] = It Happened in Michigan, by Colleen Burcar c2019, , The Rowand and Littlefield Publishing Group, Lanham, Maryland.
  • [HMC] = "The History of the Michigan Central Railroad Co., West Detroit Shops, Canada Southern Bridge Co., and the Detroit River Railroad Tunnel", by G. F. Kuschel, before the Wolverine Railroad Historical Society, Detroit, November 30, 1950
  • [HP] = The Herald Press, Saint Joseph, Michigan.
  • [HPAL] = The Herald-Palladium, Benton Harbor Michigan
  • [HS] = The Hillsdale Standard newspaper, Hillsdale, Michigan
  • [HSE] = Huron Shore Express.  D&M Railway Historical Society.
  • [HWC] = History of Wayne County and the City of Detroit, Clarence M. and M. Agnes Burton Editors, The S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1930.
  • [I&L] = The Forgotten Path of the Ionia & Lansing Railroad Company, Merritt B. Scharnweber. © 1997.
  • [ICHS] = Iron County Michigan Historical Society
  • [IDG] = Ironwood Daily Globe, Ironwood, MI
  • [IMIM] = The Iron Mining Industry of Michigan, by R.C. Allen, Lansing, MI. 1911 from the Annual Report of the Board of Geological and Bilogical Survey.
  • [INR] = Interstate News-Record newspaper, Ironwood, Michigan.
  • [IOHT] = Iron Ore Heritage Train
  • [IRI] = The Iron river iron-bearing district of Michigan. Allen, R. C. (Rolland Craten), 1881-1948
  • [IT-mm/yr] = Inside Track Magazine
  • [ITP1] = In The Pines, (original volume), An Atlas of Michigan Logging Railroads, by James S..Hannum, MD © 2017, Hannum House Publications
  • [ITP2] = In The Pines, Volume 2, An Atlas of Michigan Logging Railroads, by James S. Hannum, MD © 2017, Hannum House Publications
  • [IRP3] = In The Pines, Volume 3, An Atlas of Michigan Logging Railroads, by James S. Hannum, MD © 2020, Hannum House Publications
  • [IWT] = Ironwood Times newspaper, Ironwood, Michigan.
  • [JCP] = Jackson Citizen Patriot newspaper, Jackson, MI.
  • [KB] = Kenneth Borg.
  • [LAS] = L'Anse Sentinel newspaper, L'Anse, Michigan.
  • [LDN] = Ludington Daily News, Ludington, MI.
  • [LDP] = Livingston County Daily Press, Howell, Michigan.
  • [L&H] = The Lowell & Hastings Railroad Company.  Merritt B. Scharnweber, © 1995.
  • [LIEM] = Lumbering in Early Michigan - the Kneeland-Bigelow Company Experience. Herman Lunden Miller, Walnut Hill Press, © 1995.
  • [LITF] = Life in the Forest: The History of Montmorency County, Michigan, Carol S. Jacobson. Montmorency Co. Historical Society. © 1981.
  • [LLE] = Lewiston In The Logging Era, by Herman Lunden Miller, ©2003.
  • [LMCF] = "Lake Michigan Car Ferries Bibliography", and "Roster of Lake Michigan Car Ferries", by Paul Trapp, Holland, Michigan. July 28, 2022
  • [LOC] = Library of Congress, United States Government
  • [LPM] = Lower Peninsula of Michigan, The. An Inventory of Historic Engineering and Industrial Sites. Directed by Charles K. Hide, PhD. Wayne State University. ©1976.
  • [LS] = "The Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railway". David McLellan and Bill Warrick, Transportation Trails, © 1989
  • [LSIA] = Lake Superior Iron Ore Association, 1950.
  • [LSI1] = "Lake Superior & Ishpeming Railroad In Color Volume 1". David C. Schauer. Morning Sun Books, Inc. © 2015.
  • [LSI2] = "Lake Superior & Ishpeming Railroad In Color Volume 2". David C. Schauer. Morning Sun Books, Inc. © 2015.
  • [LSIOR] = "The Lake Superior Iron Ore Railroads".  Patrick C. Dorin.  Superior Publishing Company, Seattle, WA. © 1969.
  • [LSJ] = Lansing State Journal
  • [LSMI-xxxx] = Lake Superior Mining Institute, Ishpeming, MI, Proceedings, year.
  • [LSRC] = Information provided by the Lake State Railway. including website and publications.
  • [LSRH] = Lake States Railway Historical Association Photo Archives. www.lakestatesarchive.org
  • [MHSD] = Marine Historical Society of Detroit. Website.
  • [M&O] = The Mason & Oceana Railroad by Rovert W. Garashn, Railroad & Locomotive Historical Society.
  • [MA] = Michigan, State of, Archives.
  • [MARP] = Michigan Association of Railroad Passengers, "The Michigan Passenger" newsletter.
  • [MBGS] = Michigan State Board of Geological Survey.
  • [MCAR-YYYY] = Michigan Central Railroad Annual Report.
  • [MCDTyy] = Michigan Central Detroit Terminal Timetable Year yy]
  • [MCGW] = Michigan Central Great Western public timetable [1871]
  • [MCHS] = Muskegon County Historical Society
  • [MCI-yyyy] = The Michigan Copper Industry in yyyy, Walter E. Hopper.
  • [MCOAS] = Michigan Central Railroad Co. List of Officers, Agents and Stations, October 15, 1920
  • [MCR/yy]  Michigan Commissioner of Railroads Annual Report, State of Michigan Library.  yy=Year of report.
  • [MCTC] = Motor City Traffic Club
  • [MDOT] = 150 Years of Michigan's Railroad History, Michigan Department of Transportation
  • [MDYyy] = Moody's Manual of Investments + year
  • [MEV] = Monroe Evening News
  • [MF] = Michael Frezell
  • [MFM] = Michigan Flywheelers Museum, Kim Ingles
  • [MH-mm/yyyy] = Michigan History Magazine
  • [MHM] = Michigan historical marker
  • [MIHX8] = Information provided at the 8th Michigan Railroad History Conference in St. Ignace, MI.
  • [MILB] = M.C.R.R. Mileage Book 1890 (HathiTrust]
  • [MINDAT] = Hudson Institute oif Mineralogy - www.mindat.org.
  • [MINART] = Mining Artifacts & History - miningartifacts.org
  • [MIS] = "The Miscowaubik", magazine of the Copper Range Railroad Historical & Technical Society.
  • [MLI] = mLive.com
  • [MMKR] = Michigan Markers website - michiganmarkers.com 
  • [MMS-yyyy] = Mines and Mineral Statistics, State of Michigan (annual report of the Michigan Commissioner of Mineral Statistics)
  • [MOD-mm/yy] = Model Railroad Craftsman Magazine
  • [MOL] = Michigan Ore Lines, The.  Eric Hirsimaki, Paulhamus Litho, Inc., Montoursville PA. © 2002
  • [MPN] = Michigan Place Names, Walter Romig, Wayne State university press, Detroit. © 1986.
  • [MPSC-yyyy] = Michigan Public Service Commission Orders.
  • [MPUC-yyyy] = Michigan Public Utilities Commission Orders.
  • [MRC-mm/yy] = Michigan Railfan, Michigan Railroad Club 
  • [MRF-mm/yy] = Michigan Railfan, Michigan Railroad Club
  • [MRL] = Michigan Railroad Lines,by Graydon Meints.  Published by Michigan State University Press, © 2005.
  • [MRP-vol] = Michigan Rail Preservation, by David R. Kovl
  • [MRRL] = This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
  • [MRRC] = Michigan Railroads & Railroad Companies, by Graydon "Don" M. Meints.  Published by Michigan State University Press. © 1992.
  • [MSAI] = Michigan State Archives Interlocker Files.
  • [MSL] = A Most Superior Land, Michigan Natural Resources Magazine, © 1983.
  • [MT] = Mark Tomlinson, historian, Kalamazoo MI.
  • [MTB] = Mike Tabone, South Lyon, MI.
  • [MusC] = Muskegon Chronical newspaper.
  • [MW] = Mark Worrall, historian.
  • [MWD] = Mark W. Dobronski
  • [NEW] = Newberry News, Newberry, Michigan
  • [NK] = Studies of Nick Korstange (Railroads of various counties).
  • [NL] = The Newberry Library, 60 West Walton Street, Chicago, IL 60610  www.newberry.org, 
  • [NN] = Nathan Nietering.
  • [NTR] = Northern Tribune, Cheboygan, Michigan.
  • [NWL-q/yyyy] = Northwestern Lines Magazine, C&NW Historical Society.
  • [NYCF] = New York Central Facilities by Geoffrey H. Doughty.  Published by Morningside Books, © 2002.
  • [NYC-mm/yyyy] = The Central Headlight, New York Central System Historical Society, Inc.
  • [NYC-MC] = Michigan Central District, New York Central Historical Society
  • [NYT-mm/dd/yyyy] - New York Times
  • [OCA] = Otsego County Advance, Gaylord, MI
  • [OG-mmddyyyy] = Official Guide of Railways
  • [OHT] = Otsego Herald and Times, Gaylord, MI
  • [OR] = This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
  • [OT] = Owosso Times, Owosso, Michigan.
  • [PG] = Priscilla Geyer, Curator of the museum for the Crawford County Historical Society
  • [PHDH] = Daily Herald newspaper, Port Huron, MI
  • [PHTH] = Times Herald newspaper, Port Huron, MI
  • [PMAR-yyyy] = Pere Marquette Railroad Annual Report.
  • [PMHS] = Pere Marquette Historical Society Web Page
  • [PMT] = Tracks, a Pere Marquette Historical Society Publication
  • [PMTL] = Pere Marquette Telegraphers Agreement 1927
  • [PM45] = The Pere Marquette in 1945, published by the C&O Historical Society, Inc.
  • [PNR] = Petoskey News-Review, Petoskey, Michigan
  • [PPD] = Preserve, Protect and Defend, an Illustrated History of the Michigan State Police in the 20th Century by Phillip Schertzing, Turner Publishing Co. © 2002
  • [PRRHTS-X/yyyy] = "Keystone" magazine. Pennsylvania Railroad Technical and Historical Society.
  • [R&LHS-nnnn] = Railway & Locomotive Historical Society nnnn=year or bulletin numbe
  • [R&R-mm/yyyy] = Railfan and Railroad Magazine.
  • [RA-mm/dd/yyyy] = Railway Age or Railway Age Gazette
  • [RAUS] = Railroad Atlas of the United States in 1946, Richard C. Carpenter, John Hopkins Press © 2008
  • [RG-mm/dd/yyyy] = Railway Gazette
  • [RCOM] = Information from RailComm, Inc.
  • [RL] = Railway Life magazine.
  • [RMK] = Remember When, D&M Historical Society, by Rosemary Klenow, former D&M employee.
  • [RMLC] = Railroad Maps of the United States. A Selected Annotated Bibliography of Original 19th-century Maps in the Geography and Map Division of the Library of Congress.
  • [RNE] = Rails Northeast.
  • [RO] = Robert Oom, Kalamazoo, Michigan
  • [RR] = Railway Review, Chicago, IL
  • [RRM] = Railroad Magazine.
  • [RS] = Russell Smeltzer, Frankfort, MI
  • [RSC] = Railway signaling and communications.
  • [RSE] = Railway Signal Engineer, Simmons-Boardman Publishing Company, successor to The Signal Engineer.
  • [RSG] = Railway Signaling.
  • [RWC] = Robert Cosgrove, Past Trustee, New York Central System Historical Society
  • [SAM] = S. A. McCall, Historical Dates. Just when did That Happen?
  • [SBM-yyyy] - Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps - year.
  • [SEB] = The Sebewaing Blade newspaper, Sebewaing, Michigan.
  • [SEN] = Soo Evening News newspaper, Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan.
  • [SJDP] = St. Joseph Daily Press, St. Joseph, Michigan.
  • [SJH] = St. Joseph Herald, Saint Joseph, Michigan
  • [SMcD] = Steven J. McDonald, Cadillac, Michigan
  • [SMA] = State of Michigan Archives, Lansing, Michigan
  • [SMA-IF] = State of Michigan Archives, Railroad Interlocker Files (Department of Transportation archives)
  • [SML] = State of Michigan Library, Lansing, Michigan
  • [SMRS-mm/yy] - Soo, a publication of the Southern Michigan Railroad Society Cross Tracks.
  • [SOO-Qtr/yy] = The Soo Line Historical and Technical Society.
  • [SRI] = Steam Railroading Institute, Owosso, Michigan.
  • [SRJ]=Street Railway Journal.
  • [SSDiv-mm/yyyy] = South Shore Division Bulletin of the Soo Line Historical & Technical Society.
  • [SSJB] = DSSA Web Page, John P. DuLong, Berkley, MI.
  • [SSP] = Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic Track Profile - 1907 as amended
  • [SSS] = South Shore Shorts, Soo Line Historical Society.
  • [SSV] = Steve Selvig
  • [STB] = Surface Transportation Board
  • [STOV] = The Routledge Historical Atlas of the American Railroads.  John F. Stover. © 1999.
  • [TB] = The Toledo Blade newspaper.
  • [TBMS] = Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary, Final Environmental Impact Statement, May, 1999 U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA
  • [TCRE] = Traverse City Record Eagle
  • [TDD] = The Diamond Drill (newspaper), Crystal Falls, MI.
  • [THF] = The Henry Ford ( Greenfield Village, Henry Ford Museum and Benson Ford Archives.
  • [TJG] = T. J. Gaffney, Curator, Port Huron  Museum.
  • [TR-mm/yy] = Trains Magazine.
  • [TRT] = The Railroad Telegrapher, by the Order of Railroad Telegraphers, 1918 edition unless noted.
  • [TSE] = The Signal Engineer, Simmons-Boardman Publishing Company.
  • [TT] = Trackside Toledo 1946-1976 Emery Gulash, by Jerry A. Pinkepank, Morning Sun Books, Inc., © 2012
  • [TTN] = The True Northerner newspaper.
  • [TTT] = Trains, tracks and travel, by T, W, Van Metre (Hathi Trust)
  • [UMB] = University of Michigan Bentley Historical Library (Website)
  • [UPM] = Upper Peninsula of Michigan, The. An Inventory of Historic Engineering and Industrial Sites. Directed by Charles K. Hide, PhD. Wayne State University. © 1978.
  • [USC] = United States Census.
  • [USGS] = United States Geological Survey maps.
  • [UVC] = The Unionville Crescent newspaper, Unionville Michigan.
  • [VOI] = Vein of Iron, The Pickands Mather Story, World Publishing Co. New York, © 1958
  • [WAK] = The Wakefield News, Wakefield Michigan.
  • [WD] = William Dunham collection.
  • [WFD] = Railroading the Wabash Fourth District by Victor A. Baird. Erstwhile Publications. © 2013.
  • [Wiki] = Wikipedia
  • [WPAL] = The Weekly Palladium, Benton Harbor, MI.
  • [WS] = Wayne Summers, historian from DeWitt
  • [WSJ] = Wall Street Journal
  • [WSTAR] = The Windsor Star newpaper, Windsor, Ontario
  • [YEX] = Yale Expositor, The, Yale, MI